What for to soften water
Natural water can be divided into two hard water and soft water: contains a lot of calcium and magnesium ions (mineral) water known as hard water, otherwise known as soft water. The hardness of the water caused by sodium carbonate or magnesium hydrogen carbonate, which is called a temporary hard water; The hardness of water containing calcium and magnesium sulfate or chloride causes this water is called permanent hard water.
Simply put, content of less than 10 mg/l of calcium carbonate in water under the water belonged to a high standard of soft water. In Western countries as 90% household water (including cooking, washing, bathing etc) are using soft water. Non-polluted stormwater, snow, dew is a naturally soft water.
1. What is hard water?
The so-called hard water, is water containing minerals, mainly calcium and magnesium salts, and so on. More contents of calcium and magnesium salts, the hardness of the water. When you wash your face with water, calcium, magnesium salts and SOAP interactions of calcium magnesium soaps form insoluble in water, it looks like plastic, viscous material, glue on your face is not easy to get rid of. In this way, dirt on the skin is not washed, and introduced some new dirt. These dirt formation of magnesium and calcium SOAP gunk clogging the openings of the glands in the skin, not only block the drainage channels of the skin, forming embolism, skin irritation can also affect the normal metabolism of the skin, making the skin prematurely shrinking, aging. Therefore, we should pay attention to select the hardness of the water softener when you wash. In nature, water, maximum hardness of the spring water, water, water hardness of medium, rain, slush and minimum hardness of distilled water, using three kinds of water after washing is good.
Relationship between soft and hard and taste of the water, hard water and refreshing, most mineral water hardness is high, makes one feel fresh and delicious, soft water is bland. But with hard water to make tea, coffee tastes will be affected. Some of the water used in food processing, fastidious, hard water will affect the food processing, protein precipitation, precipitation of inorganic salts or hard boiled, drink water and soft water better. Boiler water should soften hard water, otherwise they will be in the scale of too many accidents. Scale on the kettle and shower, bathroom tiles and sanitary ware to scrub the stains, spots on glassware, are caused by hard water. Hard water furs the household pipes gradually clogged, wasting energy and shorten the service life of the water heater, laundry needs more cleaning supplies, damage cotton fabrics, resulting in waste.
3. the great harm caused by organic pollutants on human
Current water organic pollution is very serious in China, more and more kinds of organic matter, according to the statistics, there are about more than 70,000 kinds of common. Water in the organic of exists on colloidal has protection role, makes its stability improve, not only to water treatment increased has must of difficulty, while toxic of small molecular organic to degradation, and in organisms within accumulation, and has strongly of three to role (carcinogenic, to orthodontic, to mutation) or chronic toxicity, organic on human of against often is lag of, from found to sick need a long of time, even 20-30 years. When organic and chlorine to produce halogenated compounds, many have been identified to be among the simulants. Mostly volatile trihalomethanes and non-volatile halogenated acetic acid, cancer risk is 50-100 times the latter.
Water softener technology
Industry is what softens the water?
Currently our understanding of household water treatment has a wrong concepts and consumer awareness: so long as the ' drinking part of the standards and other aspects of water almost doesn't matter. Family includes Besides drinking for drinking, bathing, washing, flushing, and so on. In fact one-third of various substances is by bathing in water absorption through the skin into the body. Water washing of water can increase, reduce the amount of washing powder, reduce water pollution, water can also reduce odour so as to improve the indoor environment in flushing. Therefore, in addition to ' drink ' section, people bathe, wash, laundry, water should be clean, health and pollution. Brown study your skin's absorption of volatile organic compounds in water, by drinking 2 litres/day for adults, babies drinking water 1 liter/day, both bathing time is 15 minutes/day, common skin absorption of volatile organic compounds in drinking water and the proportion of oral intake, adult and baby 63/37 and 40/60 respectively. Andelaman caused by trichloroethylene in drinking water is reported well as acute intake. Drinking 2 liters/person ', bath water consumption of 40-95 litres/person ' days, showers trichloroethylene Hu suction intake is of oral intake of water several times.
Therefore, the harmful substances to human health hazards in the water not only from drinking. According to foreign reports of harmful substances in the water to be absorbed roughly as follows: 1/3 by oral ingestion; 1/3 toilet and bathing in absorption by the skin; 1/3 in bath with water vapour absorbed by Hu.
Industries use water is too great, depending on the water quality using different methods to achieve the desired standards. Common industrial method of softened water is ion-exchange method.
Ion exchange water treatment refers to using ion exchange, the Exchange agent in the exchangeable ions in aqueous solution and in line with rules the reversible exchange of material, resulting in water quality improvement and Exchange structure is not substantial (chemical) change in water treatment. In this form of treatment, only the cationic Exchange reactions, cation exchange water treatment; Only anion exchange reactions, and anion-exchange water treatment; Both cations and anions involved in Exchange, said Yang, Ion-Exchange water treatment. Because raw water quality vary widely, and requirements for water quality and variety, so there are many types of ion-exchange and a combination of treatment methods, using these treatment methods and to soften water, with the exception of alkali and salt removal. Participates in the Exchange reaction of ions in ion exchanger when sodium Na +, this method is known as sodium (Na) ion-exchange method, this Exchange is known as sodium (Na) type cation exchanger, similarly, hydrogen (h) and hydrogen ion-exchange (h) type cation exchanger.
Jay Peak lying in water science and technology, Beijing limited sodium ion exchange method is a treatment method for industrial boiler feed water General. When the raw water by sodium ion exchange agent, water Ca2+, Mg2+ cation and Na+ exchanged in the exchanger reduces the hardness of the water, so that water can be softened, so this method is also known as sodium ion exchange softening.
Carbonate hardness (working hard) softening:
Ca (HCO3) 2 + 2NaR-CaR2 + 2NaHCO3
Mg (HCO3) 2 + 2NaR-MgR2 + 2NaHCO3
Non-carbonate hardness (always hard) softening:
CaSO4 + 2NaR-CaR2 + Na2SO4
CaCl2 + 2NaR-CaR2 + 2NaCl
MgSO4 + 2NaR-MgR2 + Na2SO4
MgCl2 + 2NaR-MgR2 + 2NaCl
Can also be integrated with the reactive-ion says:
Ca2+ + 2NaR-CaR2 + 2Na+
Mg2+ + 2NaR-MgR2 + 2Na+
(2) the regeneration process
Sodium ion exchange process, occurred when soft water hardness and residual hardness exceeding water quality standards regulation, sodium ion exchanger is considered void. In order to restore their Exchange, the Exchange needs to be regenerated (or restoring). regeneration process is to contain a lot of sodium ion and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution through the exchanger of the failure of the process of restoring Exchange capacity. At this point, the sodium ion is an ion exchanger and exchanger in calcium and magnesium ion solution is replacement. Sodium-ion exchange resin regeneration process can use these reactions says:
CaR2 + 2NaCl-2NaR + CaCl2
MgR2 + 2NaCl-2NaR + MgCl2
Production in the use of table salt (NaCl) solution as a regenerating agent. Because salt is easier to get, and reproduced in the course of formation of the products (CaCl2, MgCl2) is a soluble salts, easily regenerated liquid discharges. Regeneration salt, industrial salt, impurities may not be too many of them, a salt water solution filters use needs to be clarified. Usually, hardness should not exceed 40mmol/L 10% salt solution, suspension should not be greater than 2%. While regeneration of ion exchangers typically with after clarification of 8~10% salt solution. Total contact time with the regeneration of ion exchange resins crosslinked vary, for the General degree of cross-linking around 7% strongly acidic styrene type cation exchange resin, regenerated catalyst and resin minimum contact time should be 45min above.
[Bianjibenduan] water softener works
Miao Jie Feng in Beijing water softening system is equipped with technology from the synthetic filter material made of food-grade resin. Resin looks a little like a rough sand, but resin particle is more smooth. Hard to pull water through ion-exchange resin in the minerals. Soft water machine in work State in the, will source water in the of most calcium magnesium ion replacement out, source water in must pressure flow Xia, flows through with ion exchange resin of container (soft water machine) resin in the by containing of can exchange Na+ and water in the of cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+,) for ion exchange, makes container water in the Ca2+, Mg2+ ion content greatly reduced, outflow of water is hardness very low of softening water, Ion resin saturated after a certain amount of calcium and magnesium ions must be regenerated resin-soaked in saturated brine, regeneration of the adsorption of calcium and magnesium ions exchange resins, restoring resin exchange capacity, and wastewater discharges. Recycled backwash water from top to bottom before, Backwashing has two purposes, one is through Backwashing resin pressed in the running loose and resin particle and backwash full access; During the second run is accumulated in the resin surface is Backwashing water discharge of suspended matter, exchanger resistance not growing, the most advanced automatic control system for softening, back wash, vacuum salt, slow wash, quick wash, salt boxes flooding the whole process automated.-Beijing Jay Peak lying in water science and technology limited company